Grammar List for JLPT N4 Part I


These are N4 Level Sentence Patterns on how to use certain particles together with certain words, with English Translation.
Grammar Lesson (N4 Level)
Grammar Meaning (English)
aida 間(あいだ) while; during; between
aida ni 間に(あいだに) while/during~
something happened
amari~nai あまり~ない not very, not much ~
ato de 後で(あとで) after~; later
ba conditional form; If [A] then [B]
baai wa 場合は(ばあいは) in the event of; in the case that
bakari ばかり only; nothing but ~
dake de だけで just by; just by doing
dasu 出す(だす) to begin to; to start to;
to burst into; ... out
(e.g. to jump out, to carry out)
de gozaimasu でございます to be (honorific)
demo でも or something; how about~
dewa nai ka ではないか right?; isn't it?
ga hitsuyou が必要(がひつよう) need; necessary
ga suru がする to smell; hear; taste
gari がり someone tends to; has a tendency to;
has a sensitivity to ~
garu; gatteiru がる・がっている to show signs of; to appear;
to feel, to think ~
gozaimasu ございます to be, to exist
(the polite form of いる/ある)
hajimeru 始める(はじめる) to start; to begin to ~
hazu da はずだ it must be;
it should be (expectation)
hazu ga nai はずがない cannot be (impossible)
hitsuyou ga aru 必要がある(ひつようがある) need to; it is necessary to
irassharu いらっしゃる to be; to come;
to go (polite version)
itashimasu いたします to do
(polite form of する)
janai ka じゃないか right? isn't it? let's~; confirmation
ka dou ka かどうか whether or not ~
ka shira かしら I wonder~
kai かい turns a sentence
into a yes/no question
kamo shirenai かもしれない might; perhaps;
indicates possibility
kana かな I wonder; should I?
kara tsukuru から作る(からつくる) made from; made with
kitto きっと surely; undoubtedly;
almost certainly; most likely
koro / goro 頃(ころ / ごろ) around; about; when
koto こと Verb nominalizer
koto ga aru ことがある there are times when
koto ga dekiru ことができる can; able to
koto ni naru ことになる It has been decided that..;
it turns out that..
koto ni suru ことにする to decide on
ku suru くする to make something ~
kyuu ni 急に(きゅうに) quickly; immediately; hastily; suddenly;
abruptly; unexpectedly ~
made ni までに by; by the time; indicates time limit
mama まま as it is; current state;
without changing ~
matawa または both; or; otherwise;
choice between [A] or [B]
mitai da みたいだ like, similar to, resembling
mitai na みたいな like, similar to ~
mitai ni みたいに like; similar to ~
mo as many as; as much as;
up to; nearly ~
na don’t ~
(order somebody to not do something)
nado など such as, things like ~
nagara ながら while; during; as;
nakanaka~nai なかなか~ない not easy to; struggling to;
not able to ~
nakereba ikenai なければいけない must do something;
have to do something
nakereba naranai なければならない must do something;
have to do something
nara なら if; in the case that ~
nasai なさい do this (soft/firm command)
nasaru なさる to do (honorific)
ni ki ga tsuku に気がつく(にきがつく) to notice; to realize
ni mieru にみえる to look; to seem; to appear
ni suru にする to make something ~
nikui にくい difficult to do ~
no naka de の中で(のなかで) in; among ~
noni のに although, in spite of, even though ~
noni のに to (do something); in order to ~
nowa~da のは〜だ [A] is [B]; the reason for [A] is [B]
o~kudasai お~ください please do (honorific)
o~ni naru お~になる to do (honorific)
oki ni おきに repeated at intervals, every ~
owaru 終わる(おわる) to finish; to end~
rareru られる potential form; ability
or inability to do something
rashii らしい it seems like; I heard;
apparently ~
sa -ness ; nominalizer
for adjective
sakki さっき some time ago; just now
saserareru させられる causative-passive;
to be made to do something
saseru させる causative form;
to make/let somebody do something
sasete kudasai させてください please let me do
sasuga さすが as one would expect;
as is to be expected; even ~
shi and; and what’s more ~ (emphasis)
sonna ni そんなに so much; so;
like that
sore demo それでも but still;
and yet; even so ~
sore ni それに besides; in addition;
also; moreover ~

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