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Japanese Language N4 Level: けいご in Japanese (L49)

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Japanese Language N4 Level: Causative Verbs  in Japanese (L48)

けいご ( 敬語 )
Are expressions used to show the speaker’s respect for the listener or the person being referred to.

3 factors that should be consider in deciding the use of けいご.
1. When the speaker is junior or in lower status.
2. When the speaker do not have a close acquaintanceship with the listener.( meeting a person for the 1st time)
3. The relationship of a person. Example: family / company etc.

Types of 敬語
1. そんけいご ( respectful expressions)
2. けんじょうご (humble expressions)
3. ていねいご (polite expression)

そんけいご respectful expressions
Are expressions used to describe the listener or a person referred to, as well a things connected with him/her.

Verbs
1. 今日 の 授業 は 八時 に 始められます。
2. たばこ を やめられたんですか。

おVます – form に なります

This pattern is considered politer than respectful verbs.
Note:
Verb whose ます form consist of one Mora ( 見ます、寝ます) and group 3 verbs cannot be used in this pattern.
Example:
1. すみませんが..部長 は もう お帰りになりますか。

Special respectful words
Examples:
1. ( お元気 ・ お国 ・ ご家族 )
2. どうそ 召し上がって 下さい。
3. Imasu – 課長 は どこ に いらっしゃいます。
Note:
- いらっしゃいます・なさいます・くださいます and おっしゃいます are group 2 verbs. But except for the ます、they change their form in the ら-row when they conjugate.
Example:
1. 課長 は グルプ を なさいますか。
...いいえ、 なさらない と 思います。

おVます-form ください
- This is the respectful way of instructing or inviting someone to do something.
Examples:
1. どうそ、その 喫茶店 に お入り下さい。
2. 早く 家 に お帰り下さい。

Words to which お is attached:
Noun
お国・お名前・お仕事・お金

な -adj.
お元気・お上手・お暇

い - adj.
お忙しい・お若い

Words to which ご is attached:
Noun
ご家族・ご意見・ご旅行・ご両親

な – adj.
ご熱心( ごねっしん )・ご親切

Adverb
ご自由に ( ごじゆうに )

敬語 (けいご) and style of sentence
A sentence can end with a plain form of けいご.
When the speaking talking with a close friend , a person to whom the speaker wishes to show respect.
Example:
1. 社長 は 何時 に いらっしゃる?

Uniform level of けいご in a sentence
In honorific expression, it is necessary to keep a uniform level of けいご in a sentence.
Example:
1. 大統領 の おくさま も ごいっしょに テニス に 行かれます。
The country president’s wife will play tennis together with him.

ーまして
You change Vて – form まして when you want to be very polite. In a sentence with けいご – まして is often used for consistency.
Example:
1. 先生 の 大切なお話し を よく 聞きまして、メモ を します。
Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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