Dekiru and Potential Verb in Japanese


Potential Verb is a form expresses a certain ability of the Topic or the possibility of an event.

Expressing the ability to do something
In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a -verb.

In previous Lesson 18 we learned Verb Ru- Form Conjugation with Sentence Pattern N  できます and Verb Ru-Form  できます. What are the difference between this Pattern? I will give an examples.
Sentence Pattern: N  できます.
(Noun it is places before ga are mostly nouns which express actions such as driving car, skiing, dancing and etc.)
      1. マリア さん ひらがな できます.
2.  アナ  さん にほんご できます.
3. ミラさん  テニス  できます.
4. -さん  スキ- できます.

Sentence Pattern: Verb  form こと が できます
(できます is the verb which expresses ability or possibility.)
A Noun and Verb form こと before が indicates the content of ability or possibility.
      1. マリア さん は ひらがな を かく こと が できます(ability to write in Hiragana)
    Ms. Maria can write hiragana.
2    2. アナ さん は にほんご を はなす こと が できます. (ability to speak in Japanese)
    Ms. Ana can speak Japanese Language.

Verb  form こと が できます(Lesson 18) and Potential Verb (Lesson 27) are the same meaning but their sentence pattern are different.
Examples of Dekiru and Potential Verb
1. Dekiru: いもうと は およぐ こと が できます (L18)
    Potential Verb: いもうと が およげます (L27)
    Meaning: My younger sister can swim.

2. Dekiru: ちち  タクシ-  のる こと  できます(L18)
    Potential Verb: ちち  タクシ-  のれます. (L27)
          Meaning: My father can ride the taxi.

      3. Dekiru:  あした パ-ティ-  いく こと  できません (L18)
  Potential Verb: あした パ-ティ- に けません. (L27)
    Meaning: I can't go to the party tomorrow.

Rules for Changing Verb Dictionary - Form (-form) to Potential-form

The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs.
Group 1
The picture shows that the verb has ますform, The first thing to do is all i-line (highlighted red color) changed it to e-line it will become to Polite form, if you want to become dictionary form you will drop ます and add .
Group 2
The picture shows that the verb has ますform, All ends e-line of Verb and also special with ends i-line that belongs to Group 2 add られます.  
Group 3
In Potential Verb します becomes できます and ます becomes こられます. And also Verb ends with します drop ます and add できます.  

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