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Dekiru and Potential Verb in Japanese

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Potential Verb is a form expresses a certain ability of the Topic or the possibility of an event.

Expressing the ability to do something
In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a -verb.

In previous Lesson 18 we learned Verb Ru- Form Conjugation with Sentence Pattern N  できます and Verb Ru-Form  できます. What are the difference between this Pattern? I will give an examples.
Sentence Pattern: N  できます.
(Noun it is places before ga are mostly nouns which express actions such as driving car, skiing, dancing and etc.)
Examples:
      1. マリア さん ひらがな できます.
2.  アナ  さん にほんご できます.
3. ミラさん  テニス  できます.
4. -さん  スキ- できます.

Sentence Pattern: Verb  form こと が できます
(できます is the verb which expresses ability or possibility.)
A Noun and Verb form こと before が indicates the content of ability or possibility.
      1. マリア さん は ひらがな を かく こと が できます(ability to write in Hiragana)
    Ms. Maria can write hiragana.
2    2. アナ さん は にほんご を はなす こと が できます. (ability to speak in Japanese)
    Ms. Ana can speak Japanese Language.

Verb  form こと が できます(Lesson 18) and Potential Verb (Lesson 27) are the same meaning but their sentence pattern are different.
Examples of Dekiru and Potential Verb
1. Dekiru: いもうと は およぐ こと が できます (L18)
    Potential Verb: いもうと が およげます (L27)
    Meaning: My younger sister can swim.

2. Dekiru: ちち  タクシ-  のる こと  できます(L18)
    Potential Verb: ちち  タクシ-  のれます. (L27)
          Meaning: My father can ride the taxi.

      3. Dekiru:  あした パ-ティ-  いく こと  できません (L18)
  Potential Verb: あした パ-ティ- に けません. (L27)
    Meaning: I can't go to the party tomorrow.

Rules for Changing Verb Dictionary - Form (-form) to Potential-form

The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs.
Group 1
The picture shows that the verb has ますform, The first thing to do is all i-line (highlighted red color) changed it to e-line it will become to Polite form, if you want to become dictionary form you will drop ます and add .
Group 2
The picture shows that the verb has ますform, All ends e-line of Verb and also special with ends i-line that belongs to Group 2 add られます.  
Group 3
In Potential Verb します becomes できます and ます becomes こられます. And also Verb ends with します drop ます and add できます.  









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