Japanese Grammar: Verb dictionary form toki in Japanese Language

Sentence Pattern : 
V dictionary form
V nai-form
i-adj               とき,      [When]
N no
とき connects two sentences and expresses the time when the state or action described in the main sentences exists or occurs. As shown in the table above, the forms of verbs, い-adjectives, な-adjectives and nouns connected to ときare the same as the forms when modifying nouns.
1. としょかん で ほん を かりる とき, カ-ド が いります.
When you borrow books from the library, you need a card.

2. つかいかた が わからない とき, わたし に きいて ください.
When you don’t know how to use it, ask me.

3. からだ の ちょうし が わるい とき, [げんきちゃ] を のみます.
When I’m not in good shape, I drink “genki-cha.”

4. ひまな とき, うち へ あそびに きませんか?
Won’t you come to my place when you are free?

5. つま が びょうき の とき, かいしゃ を やすみます.
When my wife is sick, I take a day off work.

6. あかい とき, あまり べんきょうしませんでした.
When I was young, I did not study much.

7. こども の とき, よく かわ で およぎました.
I used to swim in a river when I was a child.

The tense of adjective sentences and noun sentences which modify とき is not affected by the tense of the main sentences (see 6 and 7).
Sentence Pattern :
V dictionary form とき
V ta-form とき
When the dictionary form of the predicate is put before とき it indicates the non-completion of the action, and when the ta-form of the predicate is put before とき it indicates the completion of the action.
(1)くに へ かえる とき, かばん を かいました.
I bought a bag when I went back to my country.

(2)くに へ かえった とき, かばん を かいました.
I bought a bag when I went back to my country.

I bought a bag when I went back to my country.
In (1) かえる indicates that at the time being referred to the action had not been completed, that the speaker had not reached his/her country yet and that he/she bought a bag somewhere on his/her way there (Japan included). In (2) かえったindicates that the action was completed and the speaker bought a bag after arriving in his/her country.
Sentence Pattern :V dictionary form と.....then(inevitably)...,
When expressing the situation where, as a result of a certain action, another action or matter inevitably happens, to is used to connect the sentences.
(1)この ぶたん を おすと, おつり が でます.
Press this button, and the change will come out.

(2)これ を まわすと, おと が おおきい なります.
Turn this, and the volume will go up.

(3)みぎ へ ,まがると, ゆうびんきょく が あります.
Turn to the right, and you will find the post office.

Expressions of one’s will, hope, invitation or request cannot be used in the sentence which follows to.
じかん が あると, えいが を みに いきます(will)
えいが を みに いきたい です(hope)
えいが を みに いきませんか (invitation)
ちょっと てつだって ください (request)
In those that cases, the conditional expression たら is used instead of to (see Lesson 25.)
Sentence Pattern :N が adjective / V
You learned in Lesson 14 that the subject is indicated by が when describing a natural phenomenon. When describing a state or a scene as it is, the subject is also indicated by が.
(1)おと が ちいさい です.
The volume is low.

(2)でんき が あかるく なりました.
The light became brighter.

(3)この ぶたん を おすと, きっぷ が でます.
Press this button, and a ticket will come out.
Sentence Pattern :N (place) を V (verb of movement)
The particle を is used to denote the place where a person or a thing passes. The verb of movement such as さんぽします, わたります, あるきます, etc.
Are used in this pattern.
(1)こうえん を さんぽします.
I take a walk in the park. (Lesson 13)

(2)みち を わたります.
I cross the road.

(3)こうさてん を みぎ へ まがります.
I turn to the right at the intersection.

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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