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Japanese Grammar: Plain past form ra in Japanese

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Japanese Grammar: Plain past form ra in Japanese
Sentence Pattern :Plain past form ら - if. .
When is attached to the past tense plain form of verbs, adjectives, etc. it changes the preceding clause into a conditional expression. When the speaker wants to state his opinion, situation, request, etc., in the conditional, this pattern is used.
Examples:
(1)おかね が あったら, りょこうします.
If I had money, I would travel.

(2)じかん が なかったら, テレビ を みません.
If I don’t have time, I will not watch TV

(3)やすかったら, パソコン を かいたいです.
If it’s inexpensive, I want to buy a personal computer.

(4)ひまだったら, てつだって ください.
If you are free, please give me a hand.

(5)いい てんきだったら, さんぽしませんか.
If it’s fine, won’t you take a walk with me?
Sentence Pattern :V た-formら, [when/after]
This pattern is used to express that a certain action will be done or a certain situation will appear when a matter, action or station which is sure to happen in the future has been completed or achieved. The main sentences is always in the present tense.
Examples:
(1)10じ に なったら, でかけましょう.
Let’s go out when it gets to ten.

(2)うち へ じゃえかえったら, すぐ シャワ-を あびます.
I take a shower soon after I return home.
Sentence Pattern :
Vて-form
い-adj (drop い)----くて   も    Even if
な-adj (drop な)---で
N で
This expression is used to present a reverse condition. Contrary to plain form ち, - this, expression is used when an action which is expected to be taken or an event which is expected to happen naturally under the given circumstances does not materialize or a thing turns out in a way opposite to a socially accepted idea.
Examples:
(1)あめ が ふっても, せんたくします.
Even if it rains, I’ll do the laundry.

(2)やすくても, わたし は グル-プりょこう が きらい です.
Even if group tours are inexpensive, I don’t like them.

(3)べんりでも, ぱそこん を つかいません.
Even if a personal computer is useful, I won’t use it.

(4)にちようび でも, はたらきます.
Even if it is Sunday, I will work.
Sentence Pattern :もし and いくら
もし is used in a sentence in the plain past form to indicate beforehand that the sentence is going to present a condition, while いくら is used with ても (-でも) to do the same.もし implies that an emphasis is on the speaker’s supposition while いくら is meant to stress the degree of conditionality.
Examples:
(1)もし 1おくえん あったら, いろいろな くに を りょこうしたい です.
If I had 100 million yen, I would want to travel in various countries.

(2)いくら かんがえても, わかりません.
No matter how much I think, I can’t understand this.

(3)いくら たかくて, かいます.
No matter how expensive it is, I will buy it.
Sentence Pattern :N が
As mentioned in Lesson 16, 4 [Note], the subject of a subordinate clause is indicated by が. In subordinate clauses using たら, でも, とき, と, まえに, etc. in addition to から, the subject is indicated by が, as shown below.
Examples: (1)ともだち が くる なまえ, へや を きょうじします.
I will clean my room before my friends come.

(2)つま が びょうき の とき, かいしゃ を やすみます.
When my wife is sick, I take a day off work.

(3)ともだち が やくそく の じかん に こなかったら, どう しますか.
If you friend doesn’t come on time, what will you do?

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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