Noun Modifier in Japanese

1. Noun modification
You learned how to modify nouns in Lesson 2 and Lesson 8.
1. ミラ-さん の うち.
Mr. Miller’s house (L.2)
2. あたらしいい うち.
a new house (L.8)
3. あたらしいい うち. a beautiful house (L.8)
In Japanese, whatever modifies a word, whether it’s a word or a sentence, it always comes before the word to be modified. Here you learn another way to modify nouns.
2.Noun modification by sentences
The predicate of the sentence which modifies a noun is in the plain form. In the case of な-adjective sentences, -だ becomes な. In the case of noun sentences だ becomes の.
(1)きょうと へ いく ひと.
a person who goes to Kyoto.

(2)きょうと へ いかない ひと.
a person who does not go to Kyoto.

(3)きょうと いかった ひと.
a person who went to Kyoto.

(4)きょうと へ いかなかった ひと.
a person who did not go to Kyoto.

(5)せ が たかくて, かみ が くるい ひと.
a person who is tall and has black hair.

(6)しんせつ で けれい な ひと.
a person who is kind and pretty.

(7)65さい の ひと.
a person who is 65 years old.
3.Nouns, which are various elements of the sentence, are picked out of it and can be modified by it.
(1)わたし は せんしゅう えいが を みました.
I saw a movie last week.

(1)わたし が せんしゅう みた えいが.
the movie that I saw last week.

(2)ワンさん は びょういん で はたらいて います.
Mr. Wang works at a hospital.

(2)ワンさん が はたらいて いる びょういん.
the hospital where Mr. Wang works.

(3)わたし は あした ともだち に あいます.
I will meet a friend tomorrow.

(3)わたし が あした あう ともだち.
the friend whom I will meet tomorrow.
When the nouns underlined in 2 3 and 4 are modified, the particles を, で and に attached to them respectively are unnecessary.
The noun modified by a sentence (“the house where Mr. Miller lived” in the example sentences below) can be used in various parts of a sentence.
(1)これ は ミラ-さん が すんで いた うち です.
This is the house where Mr. Miller lived.

(2)ミラ-さん が すんで いた うち は ふるい です.
The house where Mr. Miller lived is old.

(3)ミラ-さん が すんで いた うち を かいました.
I bought the house where Mr. Miller lived.

(4)ミラ-さん が すんで いた うち へ いった こと が あります.
I have been to the house where Mr. Miller lived.
N が
When a sentence modifies a noun, the subject in the sentence is indicated by ga.
(1)ミラ-さん は ケ-キ を おくりました.
Mr. Miller baked a cake.

(2)これ は ミラ-さん が つくった ケ-キ です.
This is the cake which Mr. Miller baked.

(3)わたし は カリナさん が かいた え が すき です.
I like the picture that Ms. Karina drew.
4. V dictionary form じかん / やくそく / ようじ
When expressing the time for doing some activity, put the dictionary form of the action before じかん.
1.わたし は あさごはん を たべる じかん が ありません.
I have no time to eat breakfast.

You can also say the content of the arrangement (appointment), etc. by putting the dictionary form of that action before やくそく, etc.
2. わたし は ともだち と えいが を みる やくそく が あります.
I have an arrangement to see a movie with a friend of mine.

3. きょう は しやくしょ へ いく ようじ が ありあます.
I have something to do that at the city hall today.

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