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Nihongo: Dictionary form Conjugation

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Sentence Pattern :Verb dictionary form
This form is the basic form of a verb. Verb are given form in the dictionary, hence the name. How to make the dictionary form is given below.
Group I
In the verbs of this group the last sound of ます-form is always in the i-line, replace it with the sound in the u-line to make the dictionary form.
POLITE FORM (ます-Form)
(1)すいます
(2)まちます
(3)のります
(4)しにます
(5)あそびます
(6)のみます
(7)かきます
(8)およぎます
(9)はなします
PLAIN FORM (る-Form)
(1)すう
(2)まつ 
(3)のる
(4)しぬ
(5)あそぶ
(6)のむ
(7)かく
(8)およぐ
(9)はなす
Group II
Attach る to the e-line form and to special form that i-lines but belongs to Group II.
ends e-line (1)たべます
(2)ねます
(3)とめます
(4)むかえます
(1)たべる
(2)ねる
(3)とめる
(4)むかえる
Special
(1)to wake up
(2)to borrow
(3)see look at,watch
(4)exist
(5)get off
(6)to wear
(7)enough
(8)can
(9)to fall
(10)exceed
(11)to take a shower
(12)to boil
ます-form
(1)おきます
(2)かります
(3)みます
(4)います
(5)おります
(6)きます
(7)たります
(8)できます
(9)おちます
(10)すぎます
(11)あびます
(12)にます
る-form
(1)おきる
(2)かりる
(3)みる
(4)いる
(5)おりる
(6)きる
(7)たりる
(8)できる
(9)おちる
(10)すぎる
(11)あびる
(12)にる
Group III
The る-form of します is する and きます becomes くる
Examples (1)べんきょうします
(2)きます
(1)べんきょうする
(2)くる
Sentence Pattern :Noun / Verb dictionary form こと が できます can...
できます is the verb which express ability or possibility. A noun and V dictionary form こと before が indicates the content of ability or possibility.
1. Noun it is places before が are mostly nouns which express actions such as driving car, shopping , skiing, dancing, etc. Noun such as にほんご, which is associated with the action はなす or ピアノ, which is associated with the action ひく, can also be used, here.
Examples
1. ミラ-さん は にほんご が できます.
2. かんじ が できます.
2. Verb when a verb is used to describe ability or possibility, こと should be attached to the dictionary form of the verb to make it a nominalized phrase and then が できます is put after that.
Examples
1. くるま を うんでんする こと が できます.
I can drive a car.

2. にほんご を はなす こと が できます.
I can speak Japanese Language.
Sentence Pattern :わたし の しゅみ Noun / Verb dictionary form こと です My hobby is...
V dictionary form こと can express the content of hobbies more concretely than the noun alone can do.
Examples
NOUN
わたし の しゅみ は おんがく です.
My hobby is music.

VERB
わたし の しゅみ は おんがく を きく こと です.
My hobby is listening to the music.
Sentence Pattern :V1 dictionary form / N の / Quantifier (period) まえ に V2 before...
1.Verb
this sentence pattern indicates that the action of V2 occurs before the action of V1 takes place. Even when the tense of V2 is in the past tense or the future tense, V1 is always in the dictionary form.
Examples
1. にほん へ くる まえ に にほんご を べんきょうしました.
I studied Japanese before I came to Japan.

2. ねる まえ に ほん を よみます.
I read a book before I go to bed.
2.Noun
When まえ に comes after a noun, the particle の is put between the noun and まえ に. Nouns before まえ に are nouns which express actions or nouns which imply actions.
Examples
1. しょうくじ の まえ に て を あらいます.
I wash my hands before eating.

2. しけん の まえ に べんきょうしまう.
I study before the exam.
3. Quantifier (period)
When まえ に comes after a quantifier (period), the particle no is not necessary.
Examples
1. たなかさん は 1じかん まえに でかけました.
Mr Tanaka left an hour ago.

2. いっしゅかん まえ に にほん へ きました.
I came to Japan before 1 week.
Sentence Pattern :なかなか
When なかなか is accompanied by a negative expression. It means “not easily” or “not as expected.”
Examples
1. なかなか かんじ を おぼえる こと が できません.
Sentence Pattern :ぜひ
ぜひ is used with expressions of hope and request such as ほしい です, vます-form たい です and vて-form ください and emphasizes the meaning of the expressions.
Examples
1. ぜひ にほん で はたらきたい です.

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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