Nihongo: Verb nai-form Conjugation

Sentence Pattern :V ない-form
The verb form used with ない is called the ない-form; that is to say かか of かかない is the ない-form of かきます (write). How to make the ない-form is given below.
Group I
In the verb of this group the last of the ます -form is always the sound in the i-line. So, replace it with the sound of the a-line to make a ない-form. The exceptions to this rule are such verb as かいます, あいます and etc. (わ is the last sound of the ない-form in these verbs instead of (a) and also with the ends of chi such as まちます, もちます and etc. (replace it with sound of the chi in the i-line and add た instead of (cha) to make a ない-form .
Example (1)すいます
(2)また ない
Group II
The ない-form of the verbs of this group is e-line form which means ends with e. It will used drop ます add ない-form. And they have some i-lines but belongs to Group II. It is called special.
ends e-line (1)たべます
(1)to wake up
(2)to borrow
(3)see look at,watch
(5)get off
(6)to wear
(9)to fall
(11)to take a shower
(12)to boil
Group III
The ない-form of します is drop ます and add ない (しない) and きます becomes (こない)
Examples (1)べんきょうします
Sentence Pattern :V ない-form ないで ください
this expression is used to ask or instruct someone not to do something.
Examples わたし は げんき です から しんぱいしない で ください.
I am fine so please don’t worry about me.

ここ で しゃしん を とらないで ください.
Please don’t take pictures here.
Sentence Pattern :V ない-form なければなりません must...
This expression means something has to be done regardless of the will of the actor. Note that this doesn’t negative meaning.
Examples くすり を のまなければなりません.
I must take medicine.
Sentence Pattern :V ない-form なくても いい です need not...
This sentence pattern indicates that the action described by the verb does not have to be done.
Examples あした こなくても いい です.
You don’t have to come tomorrow.
Sentence Pattern :N (object) は
You learned in Lesson 16 that the particle を is attached to the direct object of verbs. Here you learn that the object is made a topic by replacing を with は.
Examples ここ に にむつ を おかないで ください.
Please don’t put parcels here.

にむつ は ここ に おかないで ください.
As for parcels, don’t put them here.

かいしゃ の しょくどう で ひるごはん を たべます.
I have lunch in the company cafeteria.

ひるごはん は かいしゃ の しょくどう で たべます.
As for lunch, I have it in the company cafeteria.
Sentence Pattern :N (time ) まで に V
The point in time indicated by made ni is the time limit by which an action is to be done.
Examples かいぎ は ごじ まで に おわります.
The meeting will be over by five.

どようび まで に ほん を かえさ なければなりません.
I must return the book by Saturday.

[Note] Make sure you do not confuse made ni with the particle made.
ごじ まで はたらきます.
I work until five. (L.4)

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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