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Nihongo: Express Want

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Lesson 10 is all about Existence of inanimate and animate things.
Sentence Pattern : N1 が ほしい です
This sentence pattern is used to express the speaker’s desire to possess or have an object. It can also be used to ask what the listener wants. The object is marked with the particle が. ほしい is an い-adjective.
Examples
1. わたし は ともだち が ほしい です.
I want a friend.

2. いま なに が いちばん ほしい ですか
...くるま が ほしい です.
What do you want most now?
...I want a car most.

3. こども が ほしい ですか.
...いいえ, ほしくない です.
Do you want a child?
...No I don't.
Sentence Pattern : Vます form たい です
It is expresses the speakers desire to do something. It is also used to ask what the listener wants to do.
Examples
1. わたし は おきなわ へ いきたい です.
I want to go to Okinawa.

2. わたし は てんぷら を たべたい です
I want to eat tempura.

4. こうべ で なに を かいたい ですか.
...くつ を かいたいです.
What do you want to buy Kobe?
...I want to buy a pair of shoes.

5. おなか が いたいです から, なに も たべたいです.
Because I have a stomachache, I don’t want to eat anything
ほしい です OR たい です cannot be used to describe the third person’s desire.
You can neither use ほしい ですか nor Vます form たい ですか. When you offer something or invite someone to do something.
Examples: when you offer a cup of coffee (or invite the listener to have a cup of coffee), You should not say コ-ヒ- が ほしい ですか , nor should you say コ-ヒ- を のみたい ですか.
It should be used expressions such as コ-ヒ- は いかがですか OR コ-ヒ- を のみませんか.
Sentence Pattern:
N (place) へ Vます-form OR
N に いきます / きます / かえります
The purpose for いきます, きます or かえります is expressed using this pattern. The purpose is marked with the particle に. A noun used before に is of the kind denoting an action.
Examples
1. こうべ へ インドりょうり を たべ に いきます.
I'm going to Kobe to eat Indian food.

2. こうべ へ かいもの に いきます
I'm going to Kobe for shopping.

3. にほん へ びじゅつ の んべんきょう に きました.
I came to Japan in order to study art.
[Note] You can also use nouns denoting events such as festivals and concerts before に. In this case, the speaker's purpose is to see or enjoy the event.

Examples
1. あした きょうと の おまつり に いきます.
I’ll go to the festival in Kyoto tomorrow.
Sentence Pattern :N に V / N を V
The particle に marks the goal when used with verbs like はいります, のります (get on; see Lesson 16), etc. The particle を mark the starting point or place when used with verbs like でます, あります (get off;, see Lesson 16) etc.
Examples
1. あの きっさてん に はいりましょう.
Let’s go in that coffee shop.

2. 7じ に うち を でます.
I leave my house at 7 o’clock.
Sentence Pattern :どこか / なにか
どこか means anywhere or somewhere. なにか means anything or something.
The particles へ and を can be omitted.
Examples
1. ゆやすみ は どこか[へ] いきましたか.
...はい, いきました.
Did you go anywhere in the winter vacation?
...Yes I did

2. どのか かわきました から, なにか [を] のみたい です.
I’m thirsty. I want to drink something.
Sentence Pattern :ごちゅうもん
ご is a prefix added to some words to express respect.
Examples
1. ごちゅうもんは?
May I have your order?

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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