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Nihongo: Transitive Verb

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Lesson 6

Sentence Pattern : Subject は Direct Object を verbmasu

- it is used to indicate direct object of a transitive verb.
Examples
1. わたし は りんご を たべます
I eat apple。

2. わたし は ミルク を のみます。
I drink milk。

[Note] を and お are pronounced the same. The former is used only in writing the particle.
Sentence Pattern : N を します
The words used as the objects of the verb します cover a fairly wide range. します means that the action denoted by the noun is performed.
(1)Plays sports or games
1. バスッケト ボ-ル を します-----play basketball
(2)Gathering or Events
1. かいぎ を します-----hold a meeting
(3)Do something
1. しゅくだい を します-----do homework
Sentence Pattern : なに を しますか
This is a question to ask what someone does.
Examples
1. にちようび なに を しますか.
...ス-パ へ いきます。
What will you do on Sunday?
...I’ll go to Supermarket.

2. きのう なに を しましたか.
...にほんご を べんきょうしました.
What did you do yesterday?
...I studied Japanese language.

[Note] You can make a word expressing time the topic by adding は.
3. げつようび なに を しますか.
...きょうと へ いきます.
On Monday what will you do?
...I’ll go to Kyoto.
Sentence Pattern : なん and なに
Both なん and なに means “what”
なん is used in the following cases.
(1)When it precedes a word whose first mora is either in the た, だ or な-row.
Examples
1. それ は なん ですか.
What is that?

2. なん の ほん ですか.
What is the book about?

when it is followed by a counter suffix or the like.
Example
1. アナ ちゃん は なんさい ですか.

(2)なに is used in all other cases.
Example
1. なに を かいますか.
What will you buy?
Sentence Pattern :  Subject は Place of Action で Direct Object を verbmasu
When added after a noun denoting a place, de indicates the place where an action occurs.
Examples
1. わたし は きょうしつ で ねます。
I sleep in the classroom.

2. まいあさ わたし は ロビ- で いつも しんぶん を よみます。
I always read a newspaper in the lobby everymorning.
Sentence Pattern :  Vませんか
When you want to invite someone to do something, this expression is used.
Examples
1. いっしょに マニラ へ いきませんか。
Would you like to go to Manila with us?

2. ジュ-ス を のみませんか。
Would you like to drink a juice?
Sentence Pattern :  Vましょう
This expression is used when a speaker is positively inviting the listener to do something with the speaker. It is also used when responding positively to an invitation.
Examples
1. ちょと やすみましょう。
Let's have a break.

2. いっしょに ひるごはん を たべませんか。
...ええ、たべましょう。
Won't you have lunch with me?
...Yes, let's go and eat.

Related Articles: List of Japanese Sentence Structure
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